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8 Biggest Mistakes Parents Make #6

#6 Parents Place Attention On Changing Behaviors Rather Than Teaching Compassion

Research Shows that the most important quality to develop for success in managing relationships at work, school, or in our families is compassion. Children need to be aware of how their actions and words will affect the feelings of others and themselves. We help children to learn empathy through empathized with. Modeling this behavior for children and discussing feelings in different situations is critical to this development. It is also helpful to get your child to discuss how they would feel in a similar circumstance. Next have them talk about what he or she would do differently the next time. Use this as an opportunity  to rehearse for a similar situation in the future.

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* Biggest Mistakes Parents Make (#5) Parents Make Punishments Too Severe

Parents Make Punishments Too Severe

Ninety percent of parents believe spanking young children is acceptable. Discipline is about teaching; not punishment. The goal is to help the child to develop the inner voice of discernment and make choices based on that voice rather than  on the threat of punishment or the need to have supervision to make correct choices. Harsh punishments (ie. grounding for a month or spanking) work only in the short term and teach children to be unfair, create rightful anger and resentment towards the parent (which can undermine our influence over them), and teach them to use physical violence to solve problems. Discipline works best when it is immediate, fair, logical, or natural (or if it is set up in advance as an early warning to shift behavior). When discipline is too sever it breeds anger and resentment to get back at a parent, Punishment erodes the relationship with the parent. It is also important to realize there is a difference between facing consequences and punishment.  Facing consequences (that are fair and either logical or natural) are appropriate; punishment is not!

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8 Biggest Mistakes Parents Make (#4) Parents Aren’t Specific with Their Praise and Praise Too Frequently

Parents Aren’t Specific with Their Praise and Praise Too Frequently

Most praise children get from parents and teachers is far too generic (8i.e. great job, you’re a good boy) and the praise is far less frequent than we think. In fact, children receive 45% more negative feedback in a day than positive. Praise that is non specific make children less motivated, less self-confident and they will have a harder time dealing with failure. When we are specific with our praise children also understand what it is we want repeated and are more likely to repeat it. An example is (non-specific “good job”, specific, “I liked the way you were so patient with your sister when she was pestering you and your friend”.

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8 Biggest Mistakes Parents Make (#3)

Parents Overprotect

It’s difficult to see your child struggle or experience disappointment. Parents often jump in too quickly not allowing the child to deal with a problem or face a consequence so they can learn resiliency. We need to show kids we believe they are capable of solving problems. Giving them good guidance and then trusting to make good decisions helps them build resiliency which is key to success later in life. Disappointments will happen in life. Helping them face small things early on prepares them to have the determination and skills to persevere.

This also means allowing them to face consequences for negative actions. Having clear rules and guidelines creates safety for our children. When they face appropriate consequences for bad decisions they learn to make better decisions. Children who are rescued from consequences are more often to test limits, have behavioral problems and have poor decision making skills. Well thought out consequences that fit the crime so to speak and aren’t too harsh create respect. Consequences that are too harsh erode the child’s trust and respect for their parents. It also causes children to want revenge.

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8 nBiggest Mistakes Parents Make (#2) Parents Nag, Lecture, Nag Lecture Then Yell

Studies show that humans tune out when commands or requests are repeated. Nagging is actually a form of “negative reinforcement” and children continue misbehaving to get parental attention. We tend to ignore good behavior and focus on the negative because negative behavior causes discomfort, which we naturally try to avoid. Praise (or even more powerful encouragement) on the other hand is one of the most powerful tools we have to influence a child’s actions. Typically praise is used poorly because we aren’t specific enough with our praise so that children understand what we want repeated. Using positiver reinforcement — to praise your child immediately, specifically and enthusiastically works and creates a happy home. Encouragement is more powerful than praise because it leads children to self validate rather than needing needing someone else to recognize their worth. It builds a foundation for them to make better decisions when no adult is present to correct or validate them.

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First Biggest Mistake Parents Make

Parents Don’t Consistently and Powerfully Set limits

Not setting limits has been shown to create more rebellious and defiant children. This is because children feel unsafe without limits and thus they push the envelope to get their parents to respond. This is true even when limits are set but are inconsistently followed through on. The more consistent you are with following through on limits and consequences the less children test limits and the safer and less fear they feel.  They are also more likely to use good judgement when an adult isn’t present. And that should be a main goal for parents. Parenting after all is about teaching children to make good decisions by using their inner voice. The less you have to intervene the less stressful and more enjoyable parenting is.

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Parenting ADD/ADHD Children

Given the present circumstances that have you with your children all day long every day I know that discipline issues will be coming up for all of you. Therefore over the next few days I will be writing about the Eight Biggest Mistakes Parents Make to give you some perspective in how to approach things as there come up.

Parenting is the most complex and difficult job we ever do as adults and few of us have any real training in what works and what doesn’t. Most of us rely on what our parents and significant adults taught us even though many of these strategies are scientifically proven to fail. Parenting can be even more challenging when we have children who have more difficult temperaments or if they are impulsive. What we know from scientific studies is yelling and reasoning with your children are equally ineffective. Recently I posted an article on yelling and how harmful it is.

Sadly, many family therapists and parenting educators aren’t aware of the best research either, which means that even when parents do seek professional help they often won’t get the advice  that is most proven successful. In fact in a review led by Sheila Eyberg at the University of Florida and published in a recent Journal of Clinical Child ands Adolescent Psychology, only 16 programs designed to treat children with disruptive behavior have been shown to be “well established” in randomized clinical trials. Gaining perspective on the mistakes most parents make can give you insight into how you can improve success as well as increasing your chances of raising resilient and healthier children.

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How To Stop Yelling At Your Kids, And What To Do Instead

With the pandemic keeping us at home more with our kids and not being able to get them out enough to run off excess energy I felt it would be helpful to give some tips to help out. I talk a lot about parental behaviors that are counter productive to changing the actions of our kids. Yelling and its negative affects is one of these responses that are not only counter productive, they are extremely harmful to our children.

The following article Catherine Pearson not only discusses the harmful affects it gives some great tips I offer my clients. Enjoy:

Spanking, research unequivocally tells us, is bad for kids. But yelling? Every parent does it at some point. How bad can it be? 

Pretty damn bad, it turns out.

The American Academy of Pediatrics says that yelling can elevate children’s stress hormones and lead to changes in the actual architecture of their little brains. And research also suggests it doesn’t particularly work. It can lead to more of the types of behaviors parents are trying to quell, instead of stopping them. On top of which, no parent likes yelling. 

So what then? How do you keep yourself from losing it, particularly if it has become a habit? And what can you do to get your kiddos to actually listen?

Here are 5 expert tips.

1. First, know there is a difference between yelling to protect and yelling in anger.

“Anger itself is an emotion designed to change behavior,” said Dr. Joseph Shrand, a psychiatrist and chief medical officer of Riverside Community Care in Massachusetts who wrote “Outsmarting Anger: 7 Strategies for Defusing Our Most Dangerous Emotion.” “Sometimes we yell to protect a kid, and that is a different kind of yelling. That’s an alarm. You’re raising your voice to alert your child that there is a danger.”

If you’re yelling at your kid because he is about to cross a street without looking, or she’s about to touch something scalding, or you’re attempting to prevent any of the million other accidents kids seem capable of getting into on any given day, go ahead. Your job is to keep your child safe. Sometimes yelling helps you do that.

2. When you feel the urge to yell in anger, tap your forehead instead.

Does that sound like an odd alternative? Here’s why it’s worth a try: “Anger comes from the limbic system, which is the ancient, emotional part of the brain,” Shrand said. The more thinking, rational part of the brain is the prefrontal cortex, he explained, which helps moderate decision-making and how you behave socially. It happens to be located right behind your forehead. 

To avoid yelling, you really want to “keep it frontal, don’t go limbic,” Shrand said. Which is why he recommends putting your hand on your forehead — even for just a second or two — and taking a deep breath in and out when you feel the urge to yell. 

“Ask yourself, ‘What do I really want to do and see next? Why am I angry?’” he said. Just that quick check-in — and physical reminder that you’re aiming for a more rational, measured response to your child’s behavior — can help squash the urge to scream. 

3. Or cluck like a chicken.

Carla Naumburg, a clinical social worker and author of “How To Stop Losing Your Sh*t With Your Kids,” likes this alternative to yelling: pause and do literally anything else. Take a breath, stay silent, hop up and down, put your hands flat on a counter to try and feel grounded. Or get silly instead.

“I have clucked like a chicken,” Naumburg told HuffPost, “because it helps get the energy out and because it’s so ridiculous it kind of snaps us all out of it.”

Another option? If you feel like you absolutely must yell, at least keep it vague rather than saying really pointed, hurtful things. “You can kind of yell without saying anything awful,” said Jennifer Kolari, a child and family therapist and author of “Connected Parenting: How to Raise A Great Kid.” Go for “Gah, I am so angry!”-type stuff, where you’re basically not really saying much. And you’re certainly not saying anything particularly mean or harmful. 

4. Channel your best “teacher voice.”

Not yelling at your kids does NOT mean you let them off the hook for behavior you don’t approve of. You can and should totally speak up, but calmly and sternly. Kolari often likens it to being on a plane with turbulence: If the pilot got up and walked around to ask how everyone was doing in a very sweet, soft voice, you’d probably be confused about what was going on and what was expected of you. Likewise, you’d probably freak out if the pilot started screaming. If the pilot spoke calmly but firmly and made it clear that you need to put your seatbelt on right now, you’d do it. 

When you scream and yell at your kid, they focus more on your anger than on the lesson you’re trying to impart.

“You undermine yourself when you yell,” Kolari said. “Find that authoritative voice — the one a teacher would use in the classroom. It’s far more effective.”

5. Remember: Repeating things over and over doesn’t mean you’re failing as a parent…

…it means you’re doing your job. In many ways, a parents’ role is to act like their children’s frontal lobes, which don’t fully develop until they’re in their 20s. They need to hear some things over and over until they really get it, Kolari said. So repetition doesn’t necessarily mean that you’re failing or that they’re being undisciplined. It means you’re doing your job as a parent and repeating the lessons they need to hear as they develop. 

Also important to keep in mind? You will yell at times. We all do.

“If you raised a child who’d never been yelled at, you’d mess them up anyway,” chuckled Kolari. When they got yelled at by a friend, or coach or boss down the line, they’d just totally crumble. So if you feel bad about an interaction you had, apologize. But don’t beat yourself up about it. It’s important to have compassion for your kiddo and for yourself. 

“When your relationship is strong — when your connection with your child is strong — it’s kind of like giving them emotional shock absorbers,” Kolari said. So if and when you do yell, they can bounce back.

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Helping Kids and Yourself Through The Challenges of Confinement

Change can be challenging at any time. It can especially challenging when an unknown like a dangerous virus completely upends the regular flow of life. If we are dealing with children who are now separated from their friends and many are trying to deal with school with less guidance and support it can be even more stressful. Here are some helpful tips to making things easier to deal with.

  1. Create and stick to a routine. Go to sleep and wake up at close to the same time time they were used to for school.  Write down a schedule that is varied and includes time for school work as well as self-care.

2. Because this is school time make sure school is the priority and that phones etc. are      off limits for times when school is scheduled. Build in breaks for snacks and     movement.

2. Get out at least once a day, for at least thirty minutes. Make sure you have a place     where you can avoid close contact with others. If you have a dog having children     walk them is a great way to get them out and be responsible at the same time. It can     also be a good way for the entire family to relax together. If your child is at high risk     or you are living with those who are high risk, open the windows and use a fan to     bring in fresh air if it isn’t too cold. It is amazing how much fresh air can do for spirits.

3. Make sure to schedule in some other time to move each day, again daily for at least     thirty minutes. There are lots of exercise shows and YouTube videos that offer free     movement classes, and if all else fails, turn on the music and have a dance party!

4. Make sure your kids are connecting with friends through FaceTime, Skype, phone     calls, texting, as part of the schedule. Set up virtual playdates with friends daily via     FaceTime, Facebook Messenger Kids, Zoom, etc—your kids miss their friends, just     as you do! Connecting with other people is important to their mental health as well     as your own(so be sure you are staying connected with others through calls and     texts).

5. Develop a self-care toolkit. This can look different for everyone. Have your whole     family make one for themselves with things they can share with a family member. A     lot of successful self-care strategies involve a sensory component (seven senses:     touch, taste, sight, hearing, smell, vestibular (movement) and proprioceptive     (comforting pressure). An idea for each: a soft blanket or stuffed animal, a hot     chocolate, photos of vacations, comforting music, lavender or eucalyptus oil, a     rocking chair, or weighted blanket. Writing in a  journal, or reading an inspirational     book aloud are good for expressing feelings. Coloring mandalas that can be printed     from online sites, painting or breathing techniques, and meditation are great stress     relievers. Mint gum, Listerine strips, ginger ale, frozen Starburst, ice packs, and cold     are also good for anxiety regulation. For children, it is great to help them create a     self-regulation comfort box (often a shoe-box or bin they can decorate) that they can     use on the ready for self-aid when overwhelmed.

6. Baking together is a wonderful way to connect and ease tension. Individual pizza     night or cooking each persons favorite foods on alternating evenings goes a long     way to build love and cooperation.

7. Spend extra time playing with children. Children rarely communicate how they are     feeling, but will often communicate these feelings through play. Don’t be surprised     to see therapeutic themes of illness, doctor visits, and isolation be themes. Play is     cathartic and helpful for children—it is how they process their world and problem     solve, and there’s a lot they are seeing and experiencing in the now that they don’t     fully understand or feel comfortable with.

8. Everyone choose their own retreat space. Space is at a premium, particularly with     city living. It is important that everyone has their own separate space for work and     for relaxation. For children, help them identify a place where they can go to retreat     when stressed. You can make this place cozy by using blankets, pillows, cushions,     scarves, beanbags, tents, and “forts”. It is good to know that even when we are on     top of each other, we have our own special place to go to be alone.

9. Expect behavioral issues in children, and respond gently. We are all struggling with     disruption in routine, none more than children, especially AD(H)D children who rely     on routines constructed by others to make them feel safe and to know what comes     next. Expect increased anxiety, worries and fears, nightmares, difficulty separating     or sleeping, testing limits, and meltdowns. Do not introduce major behavioral plans     or consequences at this time—hold stable and focus on emotional connection.     remember that these are scary and unpredictable times for children. This is an     excellent time to begin to observe your children more closely to learn their triggers.     When you can notice when they are triggered and distract them or help them use     movement to keep them from escalating you can learn to avoid out of control     behavior in positive ways.

10. Lower expectations and practice radical self-acceptance for your child and yourself.       We are all dealing with higher levels of fear and stress. This does not make a       formula for excellence. Do your best and forgive yourself and your child when you       don’t measure up. We all do the best we can with the awareness we have. There is       no failing just learning. You cannot fail at this—there is no roadmap, parenting     doesn’t come with an instruction manual. There is no no precedent for this, and we     are all truly doing the best we can in an impossible situation. Forgive and go on.

11. Limit social media and COVID conversation, especially around children. There is a       lot of information on COVID-19 to consume, much is sensationalized, negatively       skewed, and alarmist. Find a few trusted sources that you can check in with a few       times a day, and set a time limit for yourself on how much you consume (again 30       minutes tops, 2-3 times daily). Keep news and alarming conversations out of       earshot from children—they see and hear everything, and can become very       frightened by what they hear.

12. Notice the good in the world, the helpers. Look for  of stories of people       sacrificing, donating, and supporting one another in miraculous ways. Find a way to       help others. Find ways, big and small, to give back to others. Call or have your       children write and deliver notes to elderly neighbors or family members. Offer to       pick up food for them and leave on their door step. And find the humor by watching       a funny movie or YouTube videos to make you laugh.

13. Find something you or your children can control, and control the heck out of it.       Organize your bookshelves, purge a closet, paint a room, group your toys, clean       the garage. It helps to anchor and ground us when the bigger things are chaotic.

14. Find a long-term project to dive into. It’s a perfect time to learn how to play the       keyboard, learn a new card game, put together a huge jigsaw puzzle, learn how to       use a computer program, play a multi-hour game of life, paint a picture, read the       Harry Potter series, binge watch an 8-season show, knit a scarf, learn to draw,       write a book. Find something that will keep you and your children busy, distracted,       and engaged to take breaks from what is going on in the outside world and prepare       for the uncertainty life holds.

15. Engage in repetitive movements and left-right movements. Research has shown       that repetitive movement (knitting, coloring, painting, clay sculpting, jump roping       etc) especially left-right movement (running, drumming, skating, hopping) can be       effective at self-soothing and maintaining self-regulation in moments of distress.       Brain Gym movement is perfect for this. If your not familiar with it I discuss it in my       book, The Gift of ADD:Secrets For Transforming Liabilities Into Possibilities For       Parents and Teachers.

The times are challenging but you are up to the challenge by using self-care and having a plan. May you stay healthy and safe!

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Young adult outcomes for individuals with remitted, persistent, and late-onset ADHD

Multiple studies have indicated that, on average, youth with ADHD have poorer outcomes in young adulthood in multiple areas compared to their unaffected peers.

A limitation of these studies, however, is that they have not typically distinguished between individuals whose ADHD persists into adulthood from those where the condition remits.

Youth whose ADHD remits may still experience adverse outcomes in young adulthood relative to others, perhaps because early difficulties related to ADHD sets them on a negative developmental path. Alternatively, negative outcomes in young adulthood may only be prominent among those whose ADHD persists.

Beyond this unresolved issue, there are some individuals for whom excessive ADHD symptoms emerge for the first time in young adulthood. Although this pattern accounts for a large percentage of adults with elevated ADHD symptoms, little is known about how their functioning compares to those with childhood onset.

A study published recently in the British Journal of Psychiatry provides a close look at how young adult outcomes in these groups compare [Agnew-Blais et al., (2018). Young adult mental health and functional outcomes in an 18-year prospective cohort of twins. British Journal of Psychiatry, 213, 626-534].

Participants were a population cohort of 2232 twins born in England and Wales in 1994-1995. As part of a larger assessment, participants were evaluated for ADHD at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12. They were evaluated again at age 18.

Results from these evaluations were used to classify participants into one of four groups:

ADHD remitters (n=193) – ADHD diagnosed during at least one of the childhood assessments but not at age 18.

ADHD persisters (n=54) – ADHD diagnosed during at least one of the childhood assessments and also at age 18.

Late onset (n=112) – ADHD diagnosed at age 18 but not earlier.

Comparison group (n= 1681) – ADHD never diagnosed.

At age 18, individuals in these groups were compared on a variety of outcomes including mental health, physical health, substance use, life satisfaction, problematic technology use, e.g., compulsive internet use, education, employment status, and criminal convictions.

In making these comparisons, the researchers controlled for childhood variables that could contribute to group differences, including IQ, childhood socioeconomic status.

Results

Mental health oucomes – ADHD remitters were no more likely than comparison subjects to be depressed (21.4% vs. 17.9%) or struggle with generalized anxiety disorder (6.4% vs. 5.8%) at age 18. They were, however, more likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder (23.6% vs. 11.9%)

Rates of all 3 disorders were considerably higher among ADHD persisters (35.2% for depression, 24.1% for generalized anxiety disorder, and 38.5% for conduct disorder) and those in the late-onset group (42.9%, 16.1%, and 35.1%)..

Substance use – Those with persistent and late-onset ADHD showed elevated rates of cannabis (i.e, marijuana) dependence and other illicit drug use relative to those without ADHD or remitted ADHD.

Rates of cannabis dependence were 3.2%, 5.7%, 14.8% and 11.6% for comparison, remitters, persisters, and late-onset groups respectively. For other illicit drug use, the rates were 15.5%, 21.8%, 29.6% and 30.4%.

Alcohol dependence, in contrast, was only higher among late-onset subjects compared to the other groups, who did not differ from each other.

Life satisfaction and problematic technology use – Compared to those without ADHD, the remitted ADHD group showed mildly lower life satisfaction, while the persistent group had both lower life satisfaction and more problematic technology use. The same was true for those in the late-onset ADHD group.

Physical health outcomes – Those in the remitted and persistent groups were more likely to be obese as young adults compared to those who never had ADHD. This was not true, however, for late-onset individuals.

The risk of daily cigarette smoking was similarly elevated in all ADHD groups compared to those without ADHD.

Education and employment – Educational outcomes were poorer for all ADHD groups and especially low among those with persistent ADHD.

Individuals in all ADHD groups were also more likely to be out of both school and work compared to those without ADHD, and, to have higher rates of criminal convictions.

The role of familial and genetic influences – Because study participants were all twins, and members of twin pairs often differed on diagnostic status, the authors could examine how ADHD versus genetic similarity and shared family experience contributed to young adult outcomes.

Compared to their unaffected co-twin, participants with ADHD in either childhood or adulthood were more likely to experience depression, anxiety, suicide/self-harm, lower educational attainment and life-satisfaction, and problematic technology use.

These poorer outcomes among participants with ADHD are thus not due to genetic similarities or shared family environmental factors, e.g., parental psychopathology or family stress. Instead, they are more likely to reflect a consequence of ADHD itself.

Summary and implications – Overall, results from this study confirm prior research that children and adults with ADHD typically experience a range of negative outcomes relative to unaffected peers.

However, the nature and intensity of those negative outcomes was found to vary by developmental pattern.

Individuals with childhood ADHD that remitted were faring better in young adulthood compared to other ADHD groups as they were not at increased risk for either mental health problems or illicit drug use.

However, they did show lower educational attainment, increased risk of obesity, more frequent smoking, mildly lower life satisfaction, and higher rates of criminal convictions than their unaffected peers.

Those whose ADHD persisted experienced not only experienced these same negative outcomes, generally of greater magnitude, but also had poorer mental health outcomes and were more likely to be involved in illicit drug use. Similar negative outcomes were evident among the late-onset group,

Overall, even though outcomes are better when ADHD remits, some negative consequences in young adulthood remain likely. And, when ADHD persists, the likelihood of multiple negative outcomes increases.

Finally, although current diagnostic criteria require some impairment from ADHD symptoms by age 12 for the diagnosis to be made, individuals whose symptoms don’t emerge until adulthood are also highly likely to struggle in multiple areas. Clearly, these are individuals for whom clinical treatment is warranted.

While the above findings can inspire pessimism, better outcomes for the remitter group highlights the need for effective early intervention.

And, it is especially important to highlight that not a single negative outcome that was experienced by over 40% of individuals in any of the ADHD groups. In most cases, although negative rates were higher among the ADHD groups than in non-affected individuals, they were often under 20% of the group.

Thus, rather than being cause for discouragement, these results highlight that although more youth with ADHD will struggle in young adulthood compared to their unaffected peers, the majority will not be significantly impaired as young adults in important domains of functioning.

An important priority for future research is thus to identify which ADHD youth are most likely to have persistent struggles and what factors best accounts for meaningful differences in young adult outcomes.

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Don’t Overlook Sleep Problems in Children with ADHD   

Problems with sleep are common in children with ADHD; in fact, past studies indicate that sleep problems occur in between 70 and 85%.

Because of this, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that sleep difficulties should be assessed as part of a comprehensive ADHD evaluation.

In some children, significant sleep difficulties may be an important contributor to apparent ADHD symptoms, and could contribute to a child being incorrectly diagnosed. For example, consistent insufficient sleep would certainly contribute to trouble with attention and focus. For other children, sleep problems may co-exist with ADHD and contribute to significant functional impairment on their own.

Although the link between ADHD and sleep difficulties is well-documented, evaluating sleep difficulties during an ADHD assessment may be routinely overlooked – see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3129712/

In addition, the clinical importance of this association is not fully clear because prior research has not examined whether sleep problems in youth with ADHD contribute to impairment in their daily functioning above and beyond their ADHD symptoms. For example, a child’s problems in daily functioning may be primarily driven by ADHD their symptoms, with sleep problems contributing little.

Alternatively, sleep problems may create significant difficulties for their daily functioning beyond what ADHD symptoms explain; in this case, treating the child’s sleep difficulties should be an important treatment target.

A study recently published online in the Journal of Attention Disorders [Craig et al., The functional impact of sleep disorders in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders. DOI: 10.1177/1087054716685840] took a close look at this important issue. Participants were 192 children – mean age of about 10 – who had been carefully diagnosed with ADHD; over three-fourths were male.

Measures

Sleep – Parents rated children’s sleep using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, which inquires about a broad range of sleep-related behaviors. Ratings were used to identify youth who struggled with excessive

daytime sleepiness (EDS), sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD), insomnia, and periodic limb movements (PLMS).

ADHD symptoms – Core ADHD symptoms were rated using a standardized behavior rating scale called the SNAP. Using this measure, parents and teachers rated children on each of 18 ADHD symptoms.

Functioning – Children’s daily functioning was assessed using the 50-item Weiss Functional Impairment Scale; this scale assesses functioning in multiple domains: family, learning and school, life skills, self-concept, social activities, and risky activities. Parents also complete a Health-related quality of life measure on their child.

Results

1. What is the nature of sleep problems in youth with ADHD?

The most prevalent sleep problem – reported for 42% of the sample – was excessive daytime sleepiness. This was followed by insomnia (30%), PLMS (26%), and SRBD (25%). In addition, 18% of parents reported substantial variability in their child’s sleep from night to night. A number of children had multiple sleep difficulties but this number was not provided.

2. Do sleep problems impair children’s daily functioning above and beyond ADHD symptoms?

This question was the crux of the study. Analyses indicated that sleep problems – specifically, excessive daytime sleepiness – contributed to significantly lower life skills even after controlling for ADHD symptoms. For social impairment, higher levels of insomnia predicted greater impairment, above and beyond impairment explained by ADHD symptoms. When examining parent reports of their child’s quality of life, excessive day time sleepiness predicted lower ratings.

It is important to note that because all children had ADHD, the variability in functional impairment ratings was likely compressed relative to what would be found in a non-clinical sample. This makes finding significant associations between sleep difficulties and functional impairment more difficult. This may explain, for example, why a significant relationship between sleep difficulties and school functioning was not found.

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Video Game-Based Tx Boosts Attention in Kids With ADH

Digital intervention shows promise as add-on to standard therapy 

Since we know kids are addicted to devises anyway here is a positive way to make a difference in symptoms.

Read the article here: https://www.medpagetoday.com/pediatrics/adhd-add/85061

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Use Praise Rather Than Reprimands

During my many years teaching and tutoring I have found that all students (yes even ADD Kids) focus better and longer and behave better when genuine praise is employed lavishly. I also found that they performed better on assignments and scored higher on all testing. Now a new study has been done and published in Educational Psychology that proves this point! Here is a link to see more https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200129091430.htm

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Use Praise Rather Than Reprimands

During my many years teaching and tutoring I have found that all students (yes even ADD Kids) focus better and longer and behave better when genuine praise is employed lavishly. I also found that they performed better on assignments and scored higher on all testing. Now a new study has been done and published in Educational Psychology that proves this point! Here is a link to see more https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200129091430.htm

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Be a Strong Advocate for Your Child and Teach Your Child How To Become An Advocate for Themselves

Every ADD/ADHD child needs to understand what their areas of weakness are, so they know why they may have certain difficulties rather than begin to see themselves as unintelligent. This will also make them more accepting of learning strategies that can minimize any struggles they may encounter because of these weaknesses. learning effective strategies early prevents them from falling far behind their classmates and more dedicated to giving continued effort (which is a key to success in all areas of life). This also makes finding effective solutions easier, and encourages them to ask for help when they need it, and assists them to advocate for the help they need as well. Children who learn self-advocacy skills early, are better able to be explicit, confident, and proactive in getting the resources and accommodations they need as they go through life. They also minimize any weaknesses they may have and develop their strengths to become more adaptable and successful in work and personal relationships. When we help them focus on strengths first we create greater opportunities for success and increase their self-esteem.

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It Is Important To Learn About ADD/ADHD and How It Affects Your Child and Family

Because ADD/ADHD is a complex condition it is imperative that you learn as much as you can about it to help yourself and your child learn to make the most of their strengths. ADD/ADHD can present very differently from child to child (especially between girls and boys).  It can present changing challenges as a child grows, as symptoms evolve through different developmental stages (elementary school, middle school, high school, college, and into adulthood for most affecting work, marriage, and parenting). To have the most success you must educate yourself, your child, and your family about ADD/ADHD. It is important that your child become an active participant in his or her treatment and they must learn to become their own advocate as they grow. Most importantly stay focused on the positive and on creating solutions.

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ADHD has Neurological and Biological Components Caused By a Number of Risk Factors, Including an Inherited Genetic Predisposition

There is a strong genetic component to ADD/ADHD. This means it tends to run in families. Research shows that persons with ADD/ADHD have differences in there brain development and how they process and a deficiency in certain brain chemicals (particularly, the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine) these neurotransmitters determine how effectively our brain inhibits behavior, sustains attention, and controls our moods.

ADHD is not caused by poor parenting or a lack of discipline at home (although having excellent parenting skill can help ADD/ADHD learn to better self-regulate their behaviors). It is not caused by eating too much sugar or watching too much television (although high levels of sugar can negatively affect ADD/ADHD children—check out www.naturaladdtreatments.com). Understanding the neurobiological factors that contribute to ADD/ADHD can help you deal with it’s symptoms. At the same time it can eliminate any feelings of guilt or shame parents may experience raising these more challenging yet brilliant children.

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Chronic Reversed Polarity

Chronic Reversed Polarity 

 

The human body is a self-contained, self-generating electrical system. Our mental processes, the immune system, and the heart are  all part of a vast system that runs electrically. Whenever electricity 

is in operation, magnetic fields are created and these fields have polarity. This means they have a north and south pole. If you put a magnet under stress, it will reverse its polarity; in essence, the north and south poles change positions. 

 

Since the human body is electrical and has a subtle magnetic field, certain conditions such as stress will reverse the body’s polarity. This condition can be temporary, yet it is often is often long-lasting and chronic. Keith R. Smith discovered that chronic polarity reversal appears to be a major factor in the cause of chronic 

fatigue syndrome, depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, auto immune diseases, cancer, ADHD, and many other conditions. 

 

Some potential signs of Chronic Reversed Polarity are: 

 

➤ Chronic stress or an Inability to Relax, Depression or Anxiety

 

➤ Headaches or Migraines 

 

➤ Difficulty concentrating, Feeling Brain Fog. or Poor Short Term Memory

 

➤ Insomnia, difficulty sleeping 

 

➤ Clumsiness or Being Accident Prone 

 

➤ Chronic Fatigue 

 

➤ Pain 

 

➤ Chronic health problems including Constipation, digestive problems or Irritable Bowel 

 

Stress plays an important role in ADD and the ability to learn. One form of stress that has greatly increased in recent years is exposure to Electromagnetic Frequency waves (EMF) from cell 

phones, Wifi and other electrical devises. Younger people are more vulnerable to EMF waves due to skull-thickness, which is maturing and growing. Evidence now suggests that fetal or neo-natal exposures to radiofrequency radiation may be associated with an increased incidence of autism. One way to protect yourself and your child against the stresses due to EMF exposure is wearing the GIALife Pendant. (For more information visit www.naturaladdtreatments.com and look for the Biological treatments in the drop-down menu). Treatment with Biomagnetism can return the body to balance. 

 
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Did you know that ADD/ADHD people are prone to Chronic Reversed Polarity?

Chronic Reversed Polarity 

 

The human body is a self-contained, self-generating electrical system. Our mental processes, the immune system, and the heart are  all part of a vast system that runs electrically. Whenever electricity 

is in operation, magnetic fields are created and these fields have polarity. This means they have a north and south pole. If you put a magnet under stress, it will reverse its polarity; in essence, the north and south poles change positions. 

 

Since the human body is electrical and has a subtle magnetic field, certain conditions such as stress will reverse the body’s polarity. This condition can be temporary, yet it is often is often long-lasting and chronic. Keith R. Smith discovered that chronic polarity reversal appears to be a major factor in the cause of chronic 

fatigue syndrome, depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, auto immune diseases, cancer, ADHD, and many other conditions. 

 

Some potential signs of Chronic Reversed Polarity are: 

 

➤ Chronic stress or an Inability to Relax, Depression or Anxiety

 

➤ Headaches or Migraines 

 

➤ Difficulty concentrating, Feeling Brain Fog. or Poor Short Term Memory

 

➤ Insomnia, difficulty sleeping 

 

➤ Clumsiness or Being Accident Prone 

 

➤ Chronic Fatigue 

 

➤ Pain 

 

➤ Chronic health problems including Constipation, digestive problems or Irritable Bowel 

 

Stress plays an important role in ADD and the ability to learn. One form of stress that has greatly increased in recent years is exposure to Electromagnetic Frequency waves (EMF) from cell 

phones, Wifi and other electrical devises. Younger people are more vulnerable to EMF waves due to skull-thickness, which is maturing and growing. Evidence now suggests that fetal or neo-natal exposures to radiofrequency radiation may be associated with an increased incidence of autism. One way to protect yourself and your child against the stresses due to EMF exposure is wearing the GIALife Pendant. (For more information visit www.naturaladdtreatments.com and look for the Biological treatments in the drop-down menu). Treatment with Biomagnetism can return the body to balance. 

 
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3. Did you know that iodine deficiencies (that cause thyroid problems) is one of the major causes of ADD/ADHD symptoms?

Research is beginning to confirm that the growing incidence of ADHD may be directly related to an iodine deficiency. Further, this research has shown that correcting iodine deficiencies in those with levels too low would translate into a decrease in ADHD symptoms and challenges. The clinical work of Dr. David Brownstein shows the frequency of iodine deficiencies to be equal in children and adults and that it occurs at 96%.

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Did you know that if your ADD/ADHD child finds something to shine in they are more likely to succeed and show fewer symptoms?

Because of their symptoms ADD/ADHD children are more likely to receive a higher percentage of negative feedback than other children. Because of neurological differences they are already more attuned to tonal messages and negative signals than other children so this only heightens their poor self-esteem. By finding creative outlets of expression that a child can get passionate about there are more opportunities for them to not only feel good about themselves but also set up situations where they receive encouragement. Outlets like sports, music, building things, and the arts also allow for increased opportunities for hyper focus. This allows your child (especially when you bring attention to it)  to realize they are capable of focus and attention (in fact to higher degrees than non-ADD/ADHD children). Focus on the positive by parents and teachers reduces stress and increases the child’s ability to follow through on tasks of less interest and reduces symptoms. 

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Did you know that gestalt (right)-brain ADD’ers will rule this next century?

Beneath the many assorted symptoms and challenges ADD/ADHD appears to hold is the real key that marks this difference. These person’s ability to see the big picture, connect the dots, combine disparate things into something new are trademark abilities that predict later performance in the workplace and world. The ability to be empathetic and stand in someone else’s shoes, feeling with that person’s heart, and see with their eyes along with the need and desire to derive meaning from their life and wonder what their legacy will be are all positive traits of ADD’ers and our most successful persons. 

The question is will we begin to honor, appreciate and develop these skills not only in our ADD/ADHD population but our left-brainer’s? Will we continue to drug symptoms instead of using natural interventions to address biological and neurological differences? Will we begin to reach and teach our gestalt-brain dominant ADD/ADHD population? And will we for the most part ignore the need to develop both sides of our student’s brains to create optimum outcomes and success? (Get and read The Gift of ADD: Secrets For Transforming Liabilities Into Possibilities and check out Dominance Profiles and Cogmed Working Memory Training in the store).

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Testing For Iodine Deficiencies

Iodine is necessary for normal formation and regulation of the endocrine glands (e.g. ovaries and thyroid) along with normal brain development. Insufficient levels of iodine increase the risk of inadequate development and a history of learning disorders.

 

Due to increased exposure to goitrogens like bromide, chlorine derivatives, and fluoride the need for iodine has actually increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity from bromide is increasing at epidemic proportions. Diets that are high in bakery goods and pasta are one of the reasons for high levels of bromide. Bromine is detoxified from the body by iodine.

 

Since there is no perfect dose of iodine for everyone the correct dosage needs to be determined by testing for the body’s iodine status. You accomplish this by an iodine-loading test outlined in the table below.

Iodine-Loading Test

 

  1. First morning urine discarded. A baseline can be done by testing the first urine sample prior to beginning the test.
  2. Take 50 mg. of iodine/iodide (Iodoral ®) with a glass of water.
  3. Collect urine for 24 hours. Include the first morning urine sample at the end of the 24 hour collection period.
  4. Send a sample of the urine collection for evaluation of iodine status.

 (David Brownstein, © 2014)

The test works on the premise that if you saturate the body with iodine the majority of it will be excreted unless the body is deficient in iodine causing the body to absorb more of the iodine. The test typically uses 50mg. of iodine. Studies show that a 90% excretion (or 45mg.)  of the 50 mg. dose would represent a sufficient amount of iodine. A level below 90% would indicate an insufficient iodine level; In these cases iodine supplementation is recommended. The ideal is to supplement with a combination of iodine and iodide.

 

The dosage should be individualized for each person. An iodine-knowledgeable healthcare practitioner should determine the dosage. An amount between 12 mg. and 50 mg. daily is typical for an adult. Higher doses may be necessary especially for those with cancer of the thyroid, ovaries, uterus, breast, and prostate.

 MaryEllen Jirak ©2014

 

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Iodine Deficiencies and ADHD

ADHD is a complicated challenge since there are many components to it (immune and learning differences, nutritional and dietary concerns, behavioral challenges, etc.) that is why it should be a requirement that all children diagnosed with ADHD have a complete nutritional and hormonal evaluation.  Most of these children respond positively to a holistic approach, which includes cleaning up the diet (which I discuss further in my two books The Gift of ADD: Secrets For Transforming Liabilities Into Possibilities and Cracking The ADD code: Why Outcomes Haven’t Changed and How They Can) and treatment for iodine and hormonal imbalances.

 

It is estimated by the World Health Organization, that about 1/3 (one third) of the world’s population is iodine deficient. Iodine deficiency can cause goiter, mental retardation, depression, increased childhood and infant mortality, and socioeconomic decline (Manner, M.G., et al, 1995).

 

The depletion of nutrients in our soil (including iodine), the reduction of salt intake, and the removal of iodine from most salt sources have increased the incidence of diseases and imbalances. In the table below are the therapeutic actions & conditions iodine can treat.

 

 

          Therapeutic Actions                                           Conditions Iodine Can Treat

 

          Antibacterial                                                                   ADD/ADHD

          Anticancer                                                                       Atherosclerosis

          Antiparasitic                                                                   Breast Diseases

          Antiviral                                                                           Dupuytren’s Contracture

         Elevates pH                                                                      Excess Mucous Production

         Mucolytic Agent                                                              Fatigue

                                                                                                      Fibrocystic Breasts

                                                                                                      Goiter

                                                                                                      Hemorrhoids

                                                                                                      Headaches and Migraine Headaches

                                                                                                      Hypertension

                                                                                                      Infections

                                                                                                      Keloids

                                                                                                      Liver Diseases

                                                                                                     Nephrotic Syndrome

                                                                                                     Ovarian Disease

                                                                                                     Parotid Duct Stones

                                                                                                     Peyronie’s

                                                                                                     Prostate Disorders

                                                                                                     Sebaceous Cysts

                                                                                                     Thyroid Disorders

                                                                                                     Vaginal Infections

(David Brownstein, MD © 2014)

Research is beginning to confirm that the growing incidence of ADHD may be directly related to an iodine deficiency. Further, this research has shown that correcting iodine deficiencies in those with levels too low would translate into a decrease in ADHD symptoms and challenges. The clinical work of Dr. David Brownstein shows the frequency of iodine deficiencies to be equal in children and adults and that it occurs at 96%.

 

Researchers in Italy compared women in iodine rich and deficient areas of Italy. Those in iodine deficient regions demonstrated reduced thyroid hormone and elevated TSH levels unlike women in iodine rich areas. Women in iodine poor regions gave birth to much higher numbers of children with impaired psycho-neurological development.

 

Additional research discovered higher levels of ADHD in these regions as well (Clin.Endocr.1005 April, 42(4)/409). A ten year follow up of children in the study showed a 69% incidence of ADHD in children born in iodine deficient locations compared to 0% in iodine sufficient areas. An 11-point decline in IQ was also noted in the children from iodine deficient areas.

 

These studies should give us pause as well as hope since correcting this deficiency is quite simple. (See article on testing ADHD children for iodine deficiencies)

MaryEllen Jirak ©2014

 

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Iodine Deficiencies and ADD

 

 

ADD/ADHD persons usually have greater oxidative stress, intestinal dysbiosis (which is the breakdown in the balance between protective versus harmful intestinal bacteria), increased toxic metal burden, and immune dis-regulation are also prevalent in ADD/ADHD. While other factors also play into ADD/ADHD naturally treating the above factors can substantially reduce problem behaviors and more easily allow their natural gifts to shine through. Other biological, neurological and learning differences seen in ADD/ADHD can also be addressed in natural ways. And now recent research is demonstrating that iodine deficiencies may be the cause of many of these biological challenges.  See www.naturaladdtreatments.com for my 2 new articles addressing iodine deficiencies and testing.

 

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What are recent studies telling us about ADD/ADHD?

Recent studies now show that persons with ADD/ADHD usually have greater oxidative stress, intestinal dysbiosis (which is the breakdown in the balance between protective versus harmful intestinal bacteria. Proper balance of these bacteria provides the body with the ability to fight infectious disease, and is a front line in our immune defense, provides a passive mechanism to prevent infection, and produces many vitamins particularly Vitamin B12 and Vitamin K. Acid-producing lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increase the bioavailability of minerals and decrease chances of allergies and immune problems—which are prevalent in ADD/ADHD); increased toxic metal burden, and immune dysregulation. While other factors also play into ADD/ADHD naturally treating the above factors can substantially reduce problem behaviors and more easily allow their natural gifts to shine through. Other neurological and learning differences seen in ADD/ADHD can also be addressed in natural ways. Find out about these interventions under the store on this site and drop down listings for neurological, biological and learning support.


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Is it unusual to see different behavior at home and school in an ADD/ADHD child?

It is not unusual to see different behavior in different settings. While most often the school setting is the most difficult because a child is expected to sit at a desk, change activities frequently and not allowed the movement or freedom they have come to enjoy and need at home it can be that they act out more at home after holding together all day. It will be important to learn some good discipline techniques and to make sure your child has physical outlets (movement, sports,Thai Chi, Brain Gym can all help). You will need to become aware of his triggers and watch for him ramping up so to speak so you can intervene before tantrums etc become unavoidable. A reward chart can help too. Using it to reward him for redirecting his behavior when you see it becoming disruptive can assist him to learn self-control which will be key later on. While ADD/ADHD is a gift it definitely has its challenges. It will also be important to see how he does academically. While he may not act out he may still fall behind his abilities if he compensating by spacing out. Most children who are referred in schools for ADD/ADHD are those with behavioral challenges. Many (especially girls) are more likely to display inattentive type and are never identified and most often do not perform to their ability. 

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How do I know if my child is being noncompliant or is simply incompetent with regards to skills?

This is a critical question and one which can mean the difference between a child learning self-confidence and maintaining high self-esteem or becoming oppositionally defiant later on. Understanding whether a child is misbehaving because of noncompliance or because of incompetence is one of the first steps parents must take before they can foster positive behavior change. Distinguishing between noncompliance and incompetence can be difficult because of the typical variability in performance by creative risk-takers.

Clearly, when you have a child’s attention and give positive directions about using a quiet voice, if the child continues to use a loud voice, it is case of noncompliance. Natural or logical consequences would be the appropriate result and would increase future compliance to your directions. Remember that you must follow through consistently and fairly to have the necessary effect.

On the other hand, if the child complies with your direction but later needs to be reminded again, it is more likely incompetence. Incompetence needs to be dealt with through education and skill building. The child is entitled to another positive direction rather than a consequence. In this way you can celebrate several small triumphs rather than have one large failure.

I believe that noncompliant behavior often results from incompetence that is not caught early enough. Without proper intervention, the inability of children with ADD to control their impulsivity and distractibility leads to poor self-esteem, anger, and depression. This in turn easily leads to noncompliance because the children are constantly made to feel worthless and inferior. They learn to do what is expected—misbehave.

Noncompliance can be oppositional or passive. The oppositional noncompliant child openly refuses to do what is asked. The passive noncompliant youngster says he will do something, but he procrastinates or forgets to get it done. Children with ADD can demonstrate both of these tendencies at various times. Their responses are usually a result of poor self-esteem, learning preferences, anger, or depression.

Many excellent programs can help children who are significantly noncompliant. A few programs that have proven to be successful are the Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) approach; Helping the Noncompliant Child, a program by Forehand and McMahon; Early Risers, a SAMHSA Model Program; and I Can Problem Solve. Success with such programs can be intermittent unless we develop,a true understanding of our children’s behaviors, our interactions with them, and the long-term effects of their attention problems. Therefore, it is critical to depend on more than a few techniques. You can begin with something as simple as looking at things in a fresh way. Instead of asking yourself “What’s it going to take to motivate this kid to behave differently?” ask “Why is this so hard for this child? What’s getting in his way? How can I help?”

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If my child is showing signs of ADD/ADHd in preschool is it too early to contact a specialist?

No, it’s not too early, yet it is important to realize that inattention and hyperactivity are relatively common at this age and often isn’t cause for deep concern. If your child showed early signs (in infancy that were discussed above) and is experiencing serious problems at home, in social situations, or school you will definitely want to get professional assistance. An early diagnosis can be helpful in preventing other problems developing later. Working with a specialist in parenting and a functional medicine doctor or naturopath for dietary adjustments often can be enough to reduce some of the more bothersome symptoms and social issues. If family interactions become too dysfunctional it can not only affect the ADD/ADHD child negatively but erode normal family functioning between other children. Other children may feel their ADD/ADHD brother or sister is excused for behaviors or the ADD/ADHD child may be continually blamed for things whether it is their fault or not. None of these scenarios are healthy and can lead to the breakdown of family interaction and trust. 

If your child is unusually difficult to soothe or calm down consulting a pediatrician to see if other medical problems may be the cause is recommended. It is also advisable to seek professional help if your child has not begun babbling in the first year of life, speaking words in the second year, or if your child has difficulties relating to you or others since early intervention can determine if other factors need to be addressed. 

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How can I be an advocate for my child at school to ensure he/she is getting everything he/she can and should from his teacher and the school system?

The first step is to become as informed about ADD/ADHD as you possibly can. Sadly, in most cases you will know more than a majority of instructors and these teachers can have misperceptions about ADD/ADHD and can therefore unwittingly cause many symptoms with their approach to your child’s challenges. 

Also take note of what works and doesn’t work for you and your child at home (ie. what are your child’s triggers, what kind of reinforcements, consequences etc. work best to maintain discipline and self-esteem). Share this information with your child’s teacher to give them ideas about what should work in the classroom as well. 

It is critical to the success of each year that it begin on a positive note or things can quickly escalate out of control. This would mean that valuable time and teachable moments can be lost. Set up a meeting with the instructor before school starts if possible or at least during the first week or 2 of each new year. During this meeting share information and materials that can be of help to the teacher and begin establishing a working relationship with lots of communication so every one stays on the same page during the year. This relationship can increase chances that the year will be successful for the teacher and your child. 

It is important to know that ADD/ADHD is not simply a neurotransmitter problem. ADD/ADHD children are unique thinker/processors with unique Dominance Profiles and working memory deficits that can greatly impair learning in the traditionally structured classroom. By understanding your child’s individual profile and providing the teacher with information on the strengths and weakness of that way of learning your child is more likely to receive instruction that makes best use of how they learn most effectively. 

Working memory deficits are found in almost all ADD/ADHD children. Your child’s working memory can be strengthened through Cogmed  Working Memory training. This training not only makes learning easier no matter what dominance profile your child has, it also improves their ability to focus and attend, be less impulsive, and have more behavioral and social skills success. Check out my free videos to learn more. 

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How can early signs of ADD/ADHD affect a family’s (especially the mother’s) ability to parent well?

Parenting is already a challenging job. It becomes even more complicated when dealing with a child who is challenged with neurological, biological and learning differences. It is particularly difficult if the child is the first born. This is because the mother has no experience raising a non-ADD/ADHD who doesn’t exhibit these challenging symptoms and disruptive behaviors. When the new mother is unable to soothe her child she may begin to feel she is incompetent or a bad parent. The child’s more challenging temperament, digestive difficulties, erratic sleep patterns and other disturbances make it more difficult for positive interactions and a loving bond to form between the mother and child. It

Studies have shown that mother’s who have given birth first to a non-ADD/ADHD child who shows normal growth and development and fewer challenges is more confident in her parenting skills and will see that the ADD/ADHD child’s behaviors are not her fault. She is then able to continue to do all she can to be a good parent to the more challenging youngster and persevere despite the challenges. 

It is important for parents to understand that this is about their child not about them failing as parents. they will need to recognize that they will need to work extra hard and develop extraordinary skills as parents as well as find support systems to assist them. Without doing this they will face problems later on when developmental and self-esteem issues crop up. Implementing a multimodal intervention program will be key to avoiding later challenges and delaying the creative talents of their child from manifesting. 

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Can the symptoms of infant ADD/ADHD adversely affect personality development and socialization?

Yes it can. This is one of the reasons we see higher rates of antisocial personality disorders and relationship difficulties later in the individuals life. These disorders become more likely if good parenting skills and healthy family patterns are not established early. Antisocial personality disorders are rooted in a child’s earliest relationships. these early relationships help establish the ability to empathize, have compassion for, and develop trust in others. When this isn’t established Antisocial Personality Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorders, etc. are more likely to be seen by the teen years. While poor parenting does not cause ADD/ADHD it can exacerbate later difficulties. However these challenges are not inevitable and there are many steps you can take to avoid these additional problems. Addressing all aspects of this gift is crucial to avoid less than optimal outcomes. It is why outcomes have not significantly changed despite drug intervention which looks only at adjusting neurological challenges. 

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